Criticism That Counts

Criticism That Counts

This article comes from Bruce Weinstein who is the corporate consultant, author, and public speaker known as The Ethics Guy. He has appeared on numerous national TV shows and is the author of several books on ethics. His Ask the Ethics Guy! column appears every other week on BusinessWeek.com‘s Managing channel.

Americans have a warped view of criticism. Unfortunately, most of us see criticism almost exclusively in a negative light. We dish it out tactlessly, use it to tear down rivals, and attack others with it even when we have no authority to do so.

It certainly doesn’t help that we are inundated with poor examples of criticism in the media. For starters, consider American Idol’s British judge, Simon Crowell. It’s not uncommon for Simon’s scathing criticisms to elicit tears from contestants. His words are given sincerely, but heartlessly. Watching Simon, it’s as if he relishes finding faults in another’s imperfections.

Election season paints another ugly picture of criticism. Politicians wield it like an ax to cut down their opponents. Instead of debating ideas in a civil forum, too often politicians lower themselves into a mudslinging contest.

Another media avenue, the blogosphere, has become criticism central in America. Bloggers attack the character of leaders they don’t know and rail against decisions made in circumstances they could never understand. Far too frequently, their inflammatory tone escalates conflict without adding any substantial value to the interplay of ideas.

CRITICISM DEFINED

Given the less than stellar models of criticism prevailing in society, we need a healthy definition of criticism along with practical guidance for giving and receiving it. In an April 1st article for BusinessWeek, Dr. Bruce Weinstein gives us exactly that. Here’s how he describes the value of criticism:

“The goal of true criticism is to help someone be the best they can be…When criticism is done appropriately, the person who has been criticized will understand what he or she has done wrong and will feel inspired to make a change for the better. Not only should we not avoid being criticized, we should embrace criticism because it is the only way we can continue to grow professionally and personally.”

The following practical tips are intended to flesh out the ways we can begin to embrace and wisely employ criticism as leaders.

WHEN GIVING CRITICISM

Encouragement helps criticism to land.

Before a pilot lands an aircraft, he goes through a series of procedures to make the plane touch down as smoothly as possible. The pilot gently drops altitude, gradually cuts back on speed, and lowers landing gear at just the right moment. If these steps are handled incorrectly, the ride is certain to be turbulent and may end up in disaster.

For criticism to “land” well, it must be preceded by encouragement. Leaders deafen their people to criticism when they neglect to encourage them regularly. If leaders are silent after victory but outspoken during defeat, then team morale plummets. It’s difficult to stay open to suggestions for improvement under what feels like a constant barrage of negativity.

Criticism should avoid being personal

Criticism should avoid being personal, but it should have the support of a personal relationship. To prevent personal insult, leaders should carefully pinpoint specific actions or ideas to criticize. People can accept negative feedback of their performance, but they bristle when they feel their personhood is under attack.

Leaders effectively deliver constructive criticism when they have taken the time to acquaint themselves with those they lead. Without relational connection, the person receiving criticism may feel their leader has a personal vendetta against them. However, if they are convinced their leader respects their efforts and values their growth, they are more likely to be receptive to tough words.

WHEN RECEIVING CRITICISM

Selectively filter criticism

The higher up a person goes in leadership, the more criticism he or she will receive—guaranteed. While some criticism builds up, other criticism tears down. Leaders must learn to distinguish between the two.

The acid test of criticism is made up of three questions:

  1. Does the criticism have basis in fact?
  2. Is the criticism offered constructively (in an effort to help)?
  3. Does the critic have the insight and perspective to speak credibly?

When all three questions can be answered, “yes,” then a leader should take the criticism seriously and weigh its meaning. If any question can be answered, “no,” then a leader is best served to let the criticism go in one ear and out the other.

Avoid Extremes

A leader who routinely dismisses criticism chokes off vital feedback. When leaders ignore or suppress opposing views, they miss the opportunity to sharpen their ideas. Wise leaders want to be challenged, not coddled. They surround themselves with voices that speak what they need to hear instead of saying only what they want to hear.

On the other extreme, leaders with thin skin are rattled by all manner of criticism. They agonize over the opinions of people whose input is uninformed and unintended to be helpful. They allow second-guessing to cut into their confidence. Ultimately, such a leaders cede authority by subjecting their decision-making to the approval of outsiders.

Listen, Listen, Listen

Sincere criticism rarely comes without a morsel of truth. For a leader, the trick is to stay open when confronted with negative feedback. When criticized, people are tempted to react defensively, angrily, or from a place of hurt. With emotions swirling about inside, it can be difficult to keep listening and to absorb critical comments.

Those who gain the most out of criticism hold their tongue and control their emotions in order to gain access to hard truths. By listening and remaining objective, they grow increasingly self-aware and improve their leadership.

How to Give and Receive Criticism

Constructive criticism goes far beyond the crass insults so prevalent in today’s media. Here’s how to make the most of it.

We live in an age where the line between criticism and nastiness has blurred. I’m not sure how this happened or when it began, but there are signs of it everywhere, especially on the Internet and in the media.

The Internet offers anonymity, distance, and the ability to say pretty much whatever we want about people. Nastiness masked as criticism is a staple of television and radio, whether it’s Gordon Ramsay hurling invective at restaurant workers on his Kitchen Nightmares show, Simon Cowell coming up with ever more creative ways of informing American Idol contestants that they have no talent, or talk show hosts making snide comments about a politician’s appearance. Our appetite for seeing other people criticized appears to know no bounds.

I’m sure you’ve personally encountered this kind of behavior. You’ve probably had a boss or colleague who took perverse pride in reminding you of your shortcomings. Maybe you yourself have been guilty of treating someone this way. How we give and receive criticism speaks volumes about our character, so this column is an appropriate venue for considering better and worse ways of criticizing people and how we ought to respond when someone finds fault with our own work.

What Is Criticism, Anyway?

Being taken to task for something we’ve said or done suggests that we’re fallible, and who wants to admit that he or she is flawed? If we don’t have high self-esteem, criticism validates our already low opinion of ourselves. If we’re strong and self-confident, criticism might surprise us with an unflattering view of ourselves. Regardless of how one feels about oneself, it seems criticism is something that any reasonable person wishes to avoid.

However the goal of true criticism is to help someone be the best they can be. It is not about making someone feel bad, instilling guilt, or reducing a person to tears, though all of these can be an unfortunate byproduct. When criticism is done appropriately, the person who has been criticized will understand what he or she has done wrong and will feel inspired to make a change for the better. Not only should we not avoid being criticized, we should embrace criticism because it is the only way we can continue to grow professionally and personally.

Criticism Should Recognize the Good in Others

Think about the full, rich life you’ve led thus far. You have enjoyed many professional and personal successes. You have been kind and generous to people. You have done lots of wonderful things that make it easy to like what you see when you look in the mirror.

Now think about some of the less noble choices you’ve made. You’ve cheated. You’ve lied. You intentionally hurt someone’s feelings and refused to apologize. In other words, you have been—on occasion—all too human. We all have. Wouldn’t it be unfair for you to be reduced to nothing more than the sum of your poor choices? Wouldn’t you resent having your many praiseworthy actions forgotten about when someone is troubled by something you’ve done? Of course you would, and you would be justified in feeling this way. Anyone who has lived beyond the age of three or four will have tallied up at least a few disgraceful decisions, but to be seen as nothing more than those bad decisions just isn’t right.

Criticism should include an acknowledgment of what the other person has done well, as well as an account of what he or she has not.

Criticism Should Not Be Personal

It’s easy to criticize the person rather than his or her ideas, but just because we can do something doesn’t mean that we should. The Internet in particular is rife with personal attacks posing as criticism. For example, a person identifying himself as “peter” responded to my column on the ethics of office gambling by posting: “Shut up, you’re such a baby!” Grammatical problems aside, “peter” said nothing at all about the point I was making.

Responding to the same column, “cp” wrote:

I really can’t believe this guy has a PhD and is wasting his time writing a column like this. I guess a PhD makes him smarter than me and I really didn’t know until a smart person like him pointed this out to me. Sounds to me someone needs to go out and make some friends to learn what it is like to be a NORMAL person.

Well, I may have been completely mistaken in arguing against betting at the office, but both “peter” and “cp” missed an opportunity to explain why this was so.

The only meaningful criticism about a person’s ideas focuses on the soundness or validity of that person’s argument rather than his or her personal characteristics. This means we must consider the truth of the claims in the argument and whether the conclusion logically follows from the premise. Anything else isn’t criticism at all, but merely an attempt by the critic to blow off steam, get some attention, transfer his or her frustrations to someone else, or any number of other irrelevant issues.

Why It’s in Our Own Interest to Acknowledge Criticism

What should we do when someone criticizes us? As long as the criticism isn’t petty, vicious, personal, or otherwise way off base, we should take it to heart. It’s only by carefully considering what a critic has to say that we’re able to become better. Of course it’s hard to do this, since we need to have both self-confidence and humility to acknowledge that we may be misguided. It’s understandable that our first reaction to criticism is a refusal to consider the critic’s points. Nevertheless even the most expert among us can have room for improvement. We can’t maintain excellence or hope to improve if we refuse to work on ourselves, which means, in part, taking criticism seriously.

The Rules of Fair Play

When you want to criticize someone:

1. Begin by finding something you like or appreciate about the person you’re about to criticize. This is not only fair, but will also make the person more likely to be receptive to what you have to say.

2. Focus on what that person has said or done, not on him or her personally. Only the former is relevant and likely to be acknowledged.

3. Conclude by affirming your faith that the other person will consider what you have to say. This is both a respectful way to wrap up the criticism and the best way to ensure that your remarks will be given their due.

When someone criticizes you:

1. Resist the urge to dismiss the critic. Considering what the person has to say will only strengthen your own understanding of the issue you care about.

2. Recognize that you may not be right. You may be unaware of one or more of the facts relevant to your argument, or you may have ignored some of the rules or principles at stake.

3. Realize that ad hominem attacks say more about the person making them than about you. Rather than sink to the level of such attacks, it’s wise to ignore them.

Our goal in life can be to bring out the best in others and ourselves, or it can be to puff up our own egos and debase others by exploiting our power over them. If the former is our mission, we would do well to give criticism respectfully and receive it graciously whenever it is offered in good faith.

Facebooktwitterpinterestlinkedin